The Proliferation of Open-Source Large Language Models: A Comprehensive Analysis



In the world of artificial intelligence, large language models (LLMs) have been making waves. These models, trained on vast amounts of text data, have the ability to generate human-like text, answer questions, translate languages, and even write code. The recent years have seen an explosion in the development and availability of these models, particularly in the open-source community. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current landscape of open-source LLMs, highlighting some of the most notable models and their unique features.

The Rise of Open-Source LLMs

The open-source community has been instrumental in the proliferation of LLMs. Open-source models such as the LLaMA series from Meta, QLoRA from Hugging Face, and MPT-7B from MosaicML Foundation have democratized access to these powerful tools. These models have been trained on diverse and extensive datasets, resulting in impressive capabilities in natural language understanding and generation.

MosaicML’s MPT-7B: A New Contender

MosaicML Foundation’s MPT-7B is a notable addition to the open-source LLM landscape. MPT, standing for MosaicML Pretrained Transformer, is a GPT-style transformer model trained on an impressive 1 trillion tokens of text and code. The model boasts performance-optimized layer implementations, greater training stability due to architecture changes, and no context length limitations. MPT-7B’s quality matches that of LLaMA-7B, and it is licensed for commercial use, making it a valuable tool for businesses and organizations.

The ability to fine-tune large language models on consumer GPUs and the creation of larger-scale transformers for multilingual masked language modeling are significant steps towards the democratization of AI.

Benjamin Clarke

QLoRA: Efficient Finetuning

In a world where AI is becoming as commonplace as smartphones, a groundbreaking paper titled “QLoRA: Efficient Finetuning of Quantized LLMs” has just turned the tables. This paper presents a new approach that allows for the fine-tuning of large language models (LLMs) on consumer GPUs. Yes, you heard it right! Your gaming rig might just be the next AI powerhouse.

The paper introduces QLoRA, an approach that reduces memory usage enough to fine-tune a 65B parameter model on a single 48GB GPU while preserving full 16-bit fine-tuning task performance. Their new open-source model, Guanaco, outperforms all previous openly released models on the Vicuna benchmark, reaching 99.3% of the performance level of ChatGPT while only requiring 24 hours of fine-tuning on a single GPU.

LLaMA: Meta’s Open-Source Powerhouse

Meta’s LLaMA series has been a significant contributor to the open-source LLM landscape. LLaMA, or Large Language Model, is a series of models that have been trained on diverse datasets and fine-tuned for various tasks. The series includes models like LLaMA-7B, Vicuna, and Alpaca, each offering unique capabilities.

The Larger-Scale Transformers for Multilingual Masked Language Modeling

In a recent paper titled “Larger-Scale Transformers for Multilingual Masked Language Modeling“, researchers from Google Research and Google Brain presented a new approach to training large-scale transformers for multilingual masked language modeling. The paper provides valuable insights into the challenges and solutions associated with training large-scale multilingual models, contributing to the broader understanding of LLMs.

The Open-Source LLM Ecosystem: A Look at Awesome LLM

The Awesome LLM repository provides a comprehensive overview of the open-source LLM ecosystem. It includes a list of open-source LLMs, training frameworks, tools for deploying LLMs, tutorials, courses, opinions, and other useful resources. This repository is a valuable resource for anyone interested in exploring the world of open-source LLMs.

It provides a comprehensive overview of the LLM landscape, including a list of open-source LLMs, training frameworks, tools for deploying LLMs, tutorials, courses, opinions, and other useful resources. This repository is a testament to the vibrant and growing community of researchers, developers, and enthusiasts around LLMs.

The Competitive Landscape of Open-Source LLMs

As the field of large language models continues to evolve rapidly, it’s important to keep an eye on the competitive landscape. A recent LLM leaderboard from provides a comparative overview of various large language models. The leaderboard uses the Elo rating system to calculate the relative performance of the models providing a snapshot of the current state of the field. The leaderboard includes models like GPT-4 by OpenAI, Claude by Anthropic, and Vicuna-13B by LMSYS, among others.

RankModelElo RatingDescription
1🥇 gpt-41225ChatGPT-4 by OpenAI
2🥈 claude-v11195Claude by Anthropic
3🥉 claude-instant-v11153Claude Instant by Anthropic
4gpt-3.5-turbo1143ChatGPT-3.5 by OpenAI
5vicuna-13b1054a chat assistant fine-tuned from LLaMA on user-shared conversations by LMSYS
6palm-21042PaLM 2 for Chat (chat-bison@001) by Google
7vicuna-7b1007a chat assistant fine-tuned from LLaMA on user-shared conversations by LMSYS
8koala-13b980a dialogue model for academic research by BAIR
9mpt-7b-chat952a chatbot fine-tuned from MPT-7B by MosaicML
10fastchat-t5-3b941a chat assistant fine-tuned from FLAN-T5 by LMSYS
11alpaca-13b937a model fine-tuned from LLaMA on instruction-following demonstrations by Stanford
12RWKV-4-Raven-14B928an RNN with transformer-level LLM performance
13oasst-pythia-12b921an Open Assistant for everyone by LAION
14chatglm-6b921an open bilingual dialogue language model by Tsinghua University
15stablelm-tuned-alpha-7b882Stability AI language models
16dolly-v2-12b866an instruction-tuned open large language model by Databricks
17llama-13b854open and efficient foundation language models by Meta
See the project in Chatbot Arena: Benchmarking LLMs in the Wild with Elo Ratings | LMSYS Org

The Future of Open-Source LLMs

The proliferation of open-source LLMs is a testament to the democratization of AI. These models are not only becoming more powerful and versatile, but they’re also becoming more accessible. With the continued development and improvement of these models, we can expect to see even more innovative applications in the future.

As we continue to explore and harness the power of LLMs, let’s remember to keep our human hats on. After all, while these models might be able to generate text that sounds like it was written by a person, they’re still a far cry from being able to enjoy a good joke or appreciate the beauty of a well-crafted sentence. So, let’s continue to push the boundaries of what’s possible with technology, but let’s also remember to laugh, to question, and to marvel at the incredible complexity and beauty of human language.

In conclusion, the world of open-source LLMs is like a wild roller coaster ride at an amusement park. It’s thrilling, it’s fast-paced, and just when you think you’ve got a handle on it, it throws you for another loop. Whether you’re a seasoned AI researcher, a curious developer, or just someone who enjoys learning about cool new tech, there’s never been a more exciting time to strap in and enjoy the ride. So, hold on to your hats, folks. It’s going to be a wild ride!

And remember, in the wise words of the great philosopher and AI enthusiast, Marvin the Paranoid Android, “I’d make a suggestion, but you wouldn’t listen. No one ever does.” So, go ahead, dive into the world of LLMs, explore, experiment, and most importantly, have fun! After all, isn’t that what learning is all about?

Ben Clarke


  1. QLoRA: Quantized Language Model for Low-Resource ASR
  2. MPT-7B: A Large-scale Language Model with Trillions of Parameters
  3. LLaMA: The Large Language Model Archive
  4. VicunaNER: Zero/Few-shot Named Entity Recognition using Vicuna
  5. Larger-Scale Transformers for Multilingual Masked Language Modeling
  6. Awesome LLM
  7. LLM Leaderboard
  8. MPT-7B Hugging Face Repository

AWS Cloud Credit for Research
Previous articleMachine Learning for Everybody
Next articleAI Communities Directory
Benjamin Clarke, a New York-based technology columnist, specializes in AI and emerging tech trends. With a background in computer science and a Master's degree in Artificial Intelligence, Ben combines his technical expertise with an engaging storytelling style to bring complex topics to life. He has written for various publications and contributed to a variety of AI research projects. Outside of work, Ben enjoys exploring the vibrant New York City arts scene and trying out the latest gadgets and gizmos.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here